The “Allah is the Moon-God” Nonsense Could Be the Stupidest Anti-Muslim Conspiracy Theory Yet, Page IV

Please make sure to read Page III, and III first, which were recently published.

Robert Morey’s book is full of academic dishonesty and wholesale deceit.  This is what Shabir Ally referred to as “deceptive methods” and “dishonest tactics.”  Ally lists Morey’s methodology as follows:

1. Misquoting authorities,

2. Concealing evidence,

3. Filling pages with irrelevant information thus giving a false impression of establishing something,

4. Using logical fallacies to establish conclusions, and

5. Drawing conclusions for which no evidence was even suggested, much less established.

Ally criticized Morey for reproducing a quote without including ellipses (…) to indicate the omission of words.  This, as we have seen, is a tactic that Robert Spencer has employed as well.  Morey responded to Ally’s allegation of “misquoting authorities” by saying:

What Shabir means by “misquotation” is actually partial quotation. He thus confuses partial quotation for misquotation.  This is sad as it reveals he has no command of the English language or the laws of logic.

Morey goes on:

The same is true of Shabir’s focus on if I used …enough times to suit him. Yet, he failed to use… when quoting me on several occasions! The point is: The presence or absence of … in a citation has no logical bearing on the validity of what is quoted.

One would think that Morey would be more cautious in accusing others of having “no command of the English language or the laws of logic,” when in fact he is absolutely wrong:

The failure to indicate any textual omission within the quote is always a misquotation and often makes a large effect on the meaning of the words.

Neither does the question of misquotation, partial quotation, or ellipses have anything to do with the laws of logic.  Lastly, it seems that Morey might not even know what the word ellipses means, an assumption that seems reasonable enough considering his repeated usage of “…” which renders his sentences virtually unreadable.  As stated before, perhaps he should exhibit a bit of discretion before accusing others of having “no command of the English language or the laws of logic.”

Clearly, a person who quotes books and omits words and phrases without so much as an ellipses is wholly unreliable.  This is academic dishonesty, and would be considered fraudulent.

Morey protests:

The same is true of Shabir’s focus on if I used …enough times to suit him. Yet, he failed to use… when quoting me on several occasions! The point is: The presence or absence of … in a citation has no logical bearing on the validity of what is quoted.

I did not find a single instance of Shabir Ally omitting ellipses when quoting Robert Morey, so this is a baseless claim.  As for his claim that the ellipses has no bearing on the validity of what is quoted, this is also false.  In this specific instance, Morey quoted Professor Carleton S. Coon as follows:

The god Il or Ilah was originally a phase of the Moon God.

Here is what Morey omitted from Coon’s quote (emphasis added):

The god Il or Ilah was originally a phase of the Moon God, but early in Arabian history the name became a general term for god, and it was this name that the Hebrews used prominently in their personal names, such as Emanu-el, Isra- el, etc., rather than the Ba’al of the northern semites proper, which was the sun.  Similarly, under Mohammed’s tutelage, the relatively anonymous Ilah became Al-Ilah, The God, or Allah, the Supreme Being. (Carleton S. Goon, Southern Arabia, p. 399)

Shabir Ally pointed out this deception, saying (emphasis added):

A second problem with Dr. Morey’s approach here is that he left out of Professor Coon’s statement what would disprove Morey’s most important argument against the God of Islam. Morey is proud of repeating that Allah is not the God of the Bible but the Moon-god of pre-Islamic Arabia. It would have been inconvenient for him to repeat what Coon had said as follows: … “and it was this name that the Hebrews used prominently in their personal names, such as Emanu-el, Isra-el, etc…” Morey would not let his readers understand that according to Professor Coon the same name which in South Arabia was used for the Moon-god was also used in Hebrew names like Emanu-el which Morey considers a name for Jesus.

Robert Morey protests:

He also commits the “Tit for Tat” fallacy of arguing that if Islam falls because Allah was originally the Moon-God, then Judaism goes down with it as some liberal scholars feel that Elohim started out as an astral deity. But the issue of whether Elohim started out as the Moon-God has no logical bearing on whether Allah began as the Moon-God. He is using Elohim as a red herring to divert attention from Allah.

This is yet another example of an anti-Muslim ideologue invoking the familiar “tu quoque, tu quoque!” defense.  Morey argues that whether or not the Judeo-Christian god Elohim started out as the moon-god “has no logical bearing” with regard to his basic theory, and is thus merely “a red herring.”  This is quite absurd when we consider that the entire question that is being debated here is whether or not Muslims worship the same god as the Jews and Christians.  It could therefore not possibly be more relevant!

In other words, if Robert Morey cites a source saying that Allah comes from El, and El was originally a moon-god, then in that case all Morey has proven is that both the Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions worship a god (El/Elohim and Allah respectively) that was originally the moon-god.  But, even in this case, Muslims worship the same god as the Jews and Christians–exactly the opposite of Robert Morey’s entire argument.

Morey writes on pages 10-11 of The Moon-God Allah in the Archaeology of the Middle East:

As Coon pointed out, “The god Il or Ilah was originally a phase of the Moon God.” The Moon-god was called al-ilah, i.e. the god, which was shortened to Allah in pre-Islamic times. The pagan Arabs even used Allah in the names they gave to their children. For example, both Muhammad’s father and uncle had Allah as part of their names. The fact that they were given such names by their pagan parents proves that Allah was the title for the Moon-god even in Muhammad’s day. Professor Coon goes on to say, “Similarly, under Mohammed’s tutelage, the relatively anonymous Ilah, became Al-Ilah, The God, or Allah, the Supreme Being.”

This is a logical fallacy if there ever was one.  How does the fact that the pagan Arabs believed in Allah (and named their children after him) prove that Allah was the moon-god?  It doesn’t.  This simply does not follow, and therefore this is a non sequitur.

In fact, what Prof. Coon says is (emphasis added):

The god Il or Ilah was originally a phase of the Moon God, but early in Arabian history the name became a general term for god, and it was this name that the Hebrews used prominently in their personal names, such as Emanu-el, Isra- el, etc., rather than the Ba’al of the northern semites proper, which was the sun.  Similarly, under Mohammed’s tutelage, the relatively anonymous Ilah became Al-Ilah, The God, or Allah, the Supreme Being. (Carleton S. Goon, Southern Arabia, p. 399)

Coon is saying that the word ilah had become the general term for god “early in Arabian history.” We know that this was long before the Prophet Muhammad was born, because Coon says that “it was this name that the Hebrews used prominently…”

Furthermore, Coon is saying that the word ilah became the generic term for god, and that the Prophet Muhammad called his god “Al-Ilah, The God, or Allah.”  This makes it even clearer that Allah was never the name for the moon-god.  If one accepts Prof. Coon’s quote, then all this is saying is that the word ilah (not Allah) was originally used for the moon-god, then long before Muhammad it had become the generic term for god and gods in general.  This is not the same as Allah.  As Shabir Ally concludes: “Obviously, then, al-ilah was not the Moon-god according to Coon but only according to Morey.”

*  *  *  *  *

The fact that even the source Robert Morey cites says that the term Allah is connected to the Judeo-Christian name for God is underscored by the modern-day reality that Arabic-speaking Christians continue to refer to God using the term Allah. Even the Arabic translation of the Bible uses the term Allah to refer to God.  Does this mean that these Christians worship the moon-god?

Anti-Muslim ideologues attempt to counter this point by arguing that Arab Christians adopted the word Allah for God only after the advent of Islam.  One anti-Muslim website, for example, offers the following explanation: “The name ‘Allah’ had permeated the Arab mind and became its supreme god. Thus the name slipped into the Arabic translation of the Bible.”  We are told that this was either a mistake or happenstance, or alternatively that Arab Christians adopted the term Allah for God out of fear that they may be persecuted in the lands of Islam if they called their god anything else.  Yet another theory is that certain “dhimmi”-minded Christians used the term Allah to appease the Muslims.  Robert Morey seems to adhere to this theory, as his website whines: “Bible societies have even gone so far as to use the name Allah in the Bibles they produce for Arab Christians.”

However, these counter-arguments fall to the wayside when it is pointed out that Arab Christians used the term Allah for God long before the Prophet Muhammad was born.  Professor Timothy George writes (emphasis added):

The word Allah is found 2,685 times in the Quran.  Muhammad not invent the word.  In fact, it was the common word of address for God used by Arabic Christians centuries before Muhammad was born. Millions of Arabic-speaking Arab Christians still address God as Allah today…Christians called God Allah long before Muslims did.  (Timothy George, Is the Father of Jesus the God of Muhammad?, Ch.4)

Dr. Miroslav Volf, distinguished Professor of Theology at Yale University, writes:

“Arab Christians and Arabic-speaking Jews since long before the time of Muhammad have used the name ‘Allah’ to refer to God.” (Miroslav Volf, Allah: A Christian Response, p.82)

Bible scholar Rick Brown writes (emphasis added):

However the term Allah came into Arabic, we know from ancient inscriptions that Arabic-speaking Christians were using the [word] Allah before the rise of Islam…Even today, Allah is the Arabic name for God that is commonly used by Jews and Christians.

Brown goes on to say:

Imad Shehadeh (2004), director of an Arab Christian seminary, notes the oldest extant Arab Christian translations of [Biblical] Scripture use allâh, and that this practice is documented from ancient times until the present. This fact is well exemplified in the essays in David Thomas (2006a), especially (Kachouh 2006). Shehadeh notes the total lack of evidence that anyone ever used the term allâh as the name of a moon god. Quoting Montgomery Watt, he says the claim that “Christians worship God and Muslims worship Allah” is as sensible as saying “Englishmen worship God and Frenchmen worship Dieu”.

Professor J. Dudley Woodberry says:

Many missionaries branded so-called Muslim forms of worship and religious vocabulary as wrong, without knowing that virtually all quranic religious vocabulary, including the name “Allah,” and virtually all the forms of worship, except those specifically related to Muhammad, were used by Jews and/or Christians before they were used by Muslims.

Brown comments on the Christian usage of theophoric Arabic names bearing the name Allah in them (emphasis added):

The hardest pre-Islamic evidence comes in the form of stone inscriptions that bear theophoric Arab names, i.e., Arabic names that incorporate a word for deity. The word one finds most often in the surviving inscriptions is ’lh, pronounced [ałłâh], and sometimes the shortened or Hebraic form, ’l. There is no evidence for a significantly different term for God used in place of this, such as Greek theos or Hebrew adonai or elohîm, although Yhwh is found on occasion, probably as part of a Jewish name.

He goes on:

The widespread usage of these terms in the two centuries before Islam correlates with the well-documented spread of Christianity throughout most of Arabia that during that same period (Guillaume & Ibn Ishaq 2002 [1955]: 18).

Brown offers one such example, a Christian man by the name Abdullah (slave of Allah) who lived before Muhammad:

For example, a leader of the Christians who was martyred in Najran in 523 AD is said to have been ‘Abdullah ibn Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad. Not only does he bear a theophoric name that means “servant of allâh”, he is also said to have worn a ring that said “allâh is my Lord” (Guillaume & Ibn Ishaq 2002 [1955]: 18).

There is archaeological proof that buttresses the historical evidence.  For instance, an inscription has been found honoring a Christian martyr, “in which God is referred to as alah or allah.”

Robert Morey complains that ”[dhimmi-oriented] Bible societies have even gone so far as to use the name Allah in the Bibles they produce for Arab Christians.”  Yet, Arabic Bibles have always used the word Allah for God.  It is the exact opposite of what Morey claims: Arabic Bibles had historically always used Allah until recent times when suddenly some Evangelical Christians furthered the absurd idea that Allah is some different, pagan moon-god.  But, all the ancient Arabic manuscripts we have of the Bible used the term Allah.  This, even though the Bible was translated by different churches in different parts of Arabia.  Brown expounds (emphasis added):

The New Testament or parts of it were translated many times into Arabic…The extant manuscripts date from the post-Islamic period, but there is evidence for pre-Islamic translations of the Gospel, although scholars disagree on the matter…

They all use the word allâh to refer to God. Since the Arab Christians were spread over a vast region and belonged to diverse and warring churches long before the rise of Islam, the fact that all of them used allâh to refer to God in the earliest surviving translations is an indication that the term allâh must have been in widespread use by Arab Christians in pre-Islamic times.

*  *  *  *  *

The next obvious question is: why did pre-Islamic Christians use the term Allah to refer to God?  The answer to this is quite the slap on the face of anti-Muslim Evangelical Christians.  It may come as a surprise to many ignorant anti-Muslim Christians today, but Jesus Christ did not speak English (amazing revelation, I know) and would never have used the term “God.”  Instead, Jesus spoke Aramaicwhich is a sister language of Arabic–and he referred to God as Alaha. Allah is the Arabic cognate of the Aramaic word Alaha.  UCLA professor Michael G. Morony writes on p.528 of Iraq After the Conquest:

alaha (Syr.): god, used for God by Christians, cognate with Allah (Ar.).

This explains why Arabic-speaking Christians, even before Muhammad, used the term Allah for God.  Brown writes (emphasis added):

The term allâh is most likely derived from the Aramaic word for God, alâh

Dudley Woodberry stated that the term allâh is derived from Syriac, which was the form of Aramaic commonly used in literature and Scripture in the Middle East from the fourth to the ninth centuries. (Forms of Aramaic had been the lingua franca for centuries, but Syriac took on the role of a literary language.) Kenneth Thomas (2006a: 171) supports Woodberry’s claim with the observation that “Western scholars are fairly unanimous that the source of the word Allah probably is through Aramaic from the Syriac alâhâ”. Arthur Jeffrey (1938: 66) wrote that “there can be little doubt” about this, and F. V. Winnett (1938: 247), an expert in Ancient Arabic, came to the same conclusion. Syriac-speaking Christians, most of whom speak Arabic as well, have had the same opinion, namely that the Arabic term allâh is a loanword from Syriac, and Imad Shehadeh (2004) has supported the argument from the perspective of an Arab Christian scholar.

The Aramaic word Alaha became Allah just as any word is modified when it is taken from one language to another.  For one thing, Brown points out:

In Aramaic, God is called alâh-â, where the final –â is removable…Given the prevalence of Judaism and Christianity in Arabia, the term alâh-â would have been well-known, and one would expect them to have Arabicized it by dropping the final ‘-â’ vowel.

Even to the layperson, the difference between Alah and Allah is minimal, and only the most dishonest person would fail to see the connection between the two.  As Brown comments: “It is normal for words to undergo some alteration when they are borrowed into another language.”

As for the doubling of the letter –l, Brown argues that this “was most likely prompted by…the Arab tradition of using epithets to refer to deities,” as in aluzza instead of simply uzza.  The definite article al– (the) was added to the names of deities, and this may well have been the case for the Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians.  Herein lies a great debate of whether or not the word Allah comes from the contraction alilah (The God), as well as the argument raised by Islamophobes that the word “alah” in the Bible is used as a generic term for “god”–even a false god–whereas Allah is the personal name of God for the Muslims.

Neither of these arguments is very relevant: whatever the case, it was the pre-Islamic Christians of Arabia who used the term Allah as the name of God.  So even if it is true that the Bible did not use “alah” as the personal name of God, several hundreds of years later the Jews and Christians of Arabia were referring to their god by the name Allah.  Therefore, Muhammad was only following the convention of the Judeo-Christian tradition as it had developed in the Arabian peninsula. To this day, Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians refer to God as “Allah,” using it as a name–as God and not god.  Both then and now did (and do) Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians most commonly refer(red) to God as Allah; Muhammad would of course refer to the Judeo-Christian God as they themselves most commonly referred to Him as.

The (irrelevant) argument is raised for example by Evangelical author Timothy C. Tennent who writes:

On the one hand, Christians understand the word “Allah” as a broad term for God in the Bible, but not for the tetragrammaton YHWH, which is the convenantal name for God in the Old Testament.

Do Christians in their day-to-day lives, at home and in church, commonly refer to God as “God” or do they routinely use “the tetragrammaton YHWH?”  All one has to do is listen to any Christian alive today, go to any church or listen to any Christian television channel, to see quite clearly that the most common way in which Christians invoke and refer to God is “God”–not “the tetragrammaton YHWH.”

Even Tennent himself refers to “God” as “God” throughout the very same book he makes the argument in, as well as on his website.  Just as Christians in the English-speaking West most commonly refer to their deity as “God,” so too do Arabic-speaking Christians refer to their deity as “Allah”–and so too did they hundreds of years ago in Arabia–and it only makes sense (indeed, it can be no other way) that Muhammad would refer to their God using the most commonly used word they themselves used.  Insisting that Muhammad should have used “the tetragrammaton YHWH” seems absurd when it is considered that the Jews and Christians themselves did not commonly do so.

*  *  *  *  *

Regardless of its exact etymological origin, the undeniable fact is that Arabic-speaking Christians used the term Allah for God long before the Prophet Muhammad was born.  Amazingly, this is a fact that even Yoel Natan, author of Moon-O-Theism and the greatest proponent of the moon-god theory, could not deny.  Natan thus entitles a section of his book as “The Title Allah As Used by Jews and Christians in Pre-Islamic Arabia.”  Natan writes on p.594 of Volume 1 of his book (emphasis added):

Though Arab Christians spoke the Arabic language and they used the appellation Allah, meaning “the God,” they clearly were Trinitarian.

Natan admits that the Christians in pre-Islamic Arabia named their children Abdullah, which means “servant (or slave) of God.”  He continues:

Arab Christians also used the theophoric name ‘Abdullah (“Servant of Allah”) as a baptismal name.

Even while he concedes that the Jews and Christians in pre-Islamic Arabia used the term Allah for God, Natan insists that the Prophet Muhammad was referring to another Allah when he invoked the term!  What a fantastic explanation, especially when the Quran itself commands the Muslims:

Do not argue with the People of the Book [the Jews and Christians] except in the kindest possible manner, save those of them who are oppressive, and say: “We believe in what was revealed to us and what was revealed to you; our God and your God are one and the same, and to Him do we submit ourselves.” (Quran, 29:46)

What more proof is needed?  This Quranic verse alone suffices to refute the moon-god theory, and makes it clear that Muslims worship the same God as the Jews and the Christians.  The Quran offers religious criticisms of Judaism and Christianity, each time referencing Allah as the God of the Jews and the Christians.  For example, the Quran says:

The Christians say, “The Christ is Allah’s son.”  Such are the sayings which they utter with their mouths! (Quran, 9:30)

Elsewhere, the Quran says:

O People of the Book, do not exaggerate in matters of your religion, and do not say anything about Allah except the truth: the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, was nothing more than a messenger of Allah…Allah is only one Allah. (Quran, 4:171)

The fact that the Allah of the Quran is mentioned in relation to the Christian dogma of the Trinity and with relation to Jesus–coupled with the fact that “Allah is only one Allah”–proves that the early Muslims worshiped the same God as Jews worshiped and whom Christians refer to as God the Father.

There exists a multitude of Quranic verses that associate the Allah of Islam with God the Father of Christianity.  In yet another verse, for instance, Jesus says:

“O Children of Israel!  Worship Allah my Lord and your Lord.” (Quran, 5:72)

Even if we accept the fantastic explanation offered by Yoel Natan, that there somehow existed at least two Allah’s (one belonging to the Jews and Christians and the other to the moon-god worshiping pagans), the Quran itself is proof that the Islamic Allah aligns with the Judeo-Christian Allah.  Over twenty “prophets of Allah” are mentioned in the Quran, each corresponding to a prophet in the Judeo-Christian tradition.  For example, Adam (as in Adam and Eve found in the Judeo-Christian tradition) is mentioned in the following verse in relation to Allah:

The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: “Be!” And he was. (Quran, 3:59)

Adam ate from the forbidden tree in Paradise due to Satan’s influence, and he was thus sent to earth “for a time.”  Adam turned to repentance to Allah, who subsequently forgave him:

Then Adam received word from his Lord, who accepted his repentance, for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.  (Quran, 2:37)

After forgiving Adam, Allah gave the following advice to Adam, his wife, and all his progeny:

“When guidance comes to you from Me, as it certainly will, no fear or sorrow will be felt by those who heed it.” (Quran, 2:38)

This statement of Allah to the first human being is considered the guiding principle of Islam, and the key to attaining eternal salvation.  Whoever follows the guidance from Adam’s Lord and Creator will have eternal success.  Based on the fact that this Quranic story corresponds closely (albeit with minor variations) to that found in the Judeo-Christian tradition, it can clearly be seen that the Allah of Islam is the same God as the God of Adam and Eve found in the Bible.

The Quran then speaks of Noah, another “prophet of Allah:”

We sent Noah to his people. He said, “My people, worship Allah!  You have no god other than Him.” (Quran, 7:59)

So, the Islamic Allah is the same God as the God of Noah, who is of course the God of the Bible.

Allah is also the God of Abraham, which is why Islam is an Abrahamic faith.  In the Quran–just as in the Bible–Abraham rejects the gods and idols that his father worships, and he says to his father:

“I dissociate myself from you and whatever you invoke besides Allah. I will pray only to my Lord.” (Quran, 19:48)

An even clearer proof that the Islamic God is not the moon-god (and another “I sunk your battleship” argument to the moon-god theory) is found in the story of Abraham.  Before Abraham rejects the idolatry of his father, he had considered worship of the moon (as well as the sun and the stars) only to explicitly reject it:

When the night grew dark over him he saw a star and said, “This is my Lord,” but when it set, he said, “I do not like things that set.”  And when he saw the moon rising he said, “This is my Lord,” but when it too set, he said, “If my Lord does not guide me, I shall be one of those who go astray.” Then he saw the sun rising and cried, “This is my Lord! This is greater.” But when the sun set, he said, “My people, I disown all that you worship beside Allah. Behold, I have turned my face as a true believer towards Him who created the heavens and the earth. I am not one of the idolaters.” (Quran, 6:76-79)

How could it possibly be any more evident that the Allah of the Quran is the same God as found in the Bible?

So too does the Quran make it clear that the Allah of the Quran is the God of other Biblical prophets and figures, including Lot, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, Elijah, Elisha, Jonah, and John the Baptist.  On the other hand, not a single reference is made of Allah being the moon-god nor is a single moon-god story reference made in respect to Allah.  In fact, the Quran explicitly rejects moon-worship in more than a half-dozen verses.  Therefore, even if we accept (for argument’s sake only) the tenuous claim that there existed two Allah’s (a ludicrous argument to begin with), the Quranic Allah is linked to the Allah of the Biblical figures and not the moon.

Based on this absurd two-Allah theory, Yoel Natan argues:

When Christians used the title Allah, they had “The God” of the Bible in mind.  By contrast, Abdullah was also the name of Muhammad’s pagan father.  He however was named after Allah the Makkan moon-god…

As we have seen, the evidence does not bear out Natan’s claim.  Clearly, the Quran had “The God” (Allah) of the Bible in mind, evidenced by the explicit statement to the Christians stating that “our God (Allah) and your God (Allah) are one and the same” (Quran, 29:46), as well as the multitude of verses that affirm the Abrahamic tradition by linking Allah to the Biblical prophets.  On the other hand, the Quran rejects the moon-god in multiple verses.

As for Muhammad’s father Abdullah, the Prophet Muhammad renounced him for his idolatry just as Abraham renounced his father; to this effect, the Prophet Muhammad said to another man whose father was also an “unrepentant” idolater: “my father and your father are in Hell” (Sahih al-Muslim, Book 1, #398).  The Prophet Muhammad renounced his father not because his father believed in Allah, but because he associated other gods and idols alongside Him.

If Muhammad really believed in the moon-god, then why are the Biblical prophets mentioned in the Quran promised eternal salvation in Paradise whereas his idol- and (supposedly) moon-worshiping father Abdullah is condemned to damnation in Hell?  (To make matters worse for Yoel Natan, there is no proof that Muhammad’s father worshiped the moon at all, although it is irrelevant since Muhammad renounced him altogether.)

In any case, the idea that there existed two different Allah’s–a Judeo-Christian Allah and a pagan Allah–is absurd.  Rather, the pre-Islamic pagans of Arabia were henotheistic, not purely polytheistic, in belief.  As mentioned before, this means that they believed in one supreme God who created the world, but also in lesser gods who carried out day-to-day affairs.  This supreme God they believed in was Allah, who was also the same god as that of the Jews and Christians.  Unlike the Jews and the Christians, however, Allah was of nominal importance to the pre-Islamic pagans of Arabia; He was believed to be a remote god who had faded from relevance after He created the world and set it into motion.

It is easy to imagine how it came to be that the pagans of Arabia believed in the God of the Jews and Christians, whom Arabic-speaking adherents referred to as Allah.  As Judaism and Christianity spread into Arabia–and Jewish and Christian communities became a part of the Arabian milieu–the pagans of Arabia were introduced to the name, concept, and deity of Allah.  Just as the foreign god Hubal had been accommodated by the pagans, so too was the God of Israel absorbed into their pantheon.

In a similar way that the foreign god Hubal became supremely important to the pre-Islamic Arabs so too did Allah reach “high god” status; the Judeo-Christian emphasis on Allah as the creator of everything was accepted, although Allah retired from the world and delegated his duties to lesser gods.  It would be the Prophet Muhammad who renounced these lesser gods and called to the singular worship of Allah.  Islam came as an absolute form of monotheism, rejecting the trinitarianism of the Christians and the henotheism of the Arabs, and affirming the absolute oneness of God.

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